Background Material - Energy & Resources

 

OPEC Oil Export Revenues

By: Energy Information Agency
Nov 2008
Based on projections from the Energy Information Administration, members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) could earn $979 billion of net oil export revenues in 2008, and $595 billion in 2009. Through October, OPEC has earned an estimated $884 billion in net oil export earnings in 2008. Last year, OPEC earned $671 billion in net oil export revenues, a 10 percent increase from 2006. Saudi Arabia earned the largest share of these earnings, $194 billion, representing 29 percent of total OPEC revenues. On a per-capita basis, OPEC net oil export earning reached $1,137, a 8 percent increase from 2006.
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World Energy Overview: 1995-2005

By: Energy Information Agency
Oct 2007
The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard United States physical units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Reserve estimates are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal and trade data are provided for these three fuels and for electricity. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Also available are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption and flaring of fossil fuels. Prices are included for selected crude oils. Population data are also provided.
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Resources to Reserves- Oil and Gas Technologies for the Energy Markets of the Future

By: International Energy Agency
2005
The IEA projects that oil demand will grow by more than 50 % between 2002 and 2030 and that gas demand will almost double. But where will all this oil and gas come from? Will we see a peak in oil production?
In principle, there is no shortage of these hydrocarbons in the ground. But quenching the world’s thirst for them will call for major technological progress and investment. Even if OPEC Middle-East countries can meet most of the additional supplies needed, much more advanced technology must be mobilised.
This publication identifies challenges and points to key technologies being investigated in the exploration, production and transportation sectors. It also presents estimates of the oil prices at which various sorts of resources become economical. The aim of this book is to inform discussion on how to ensure that adequate supplies can be tapped in the future.
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Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions : the Role of Coal

By: OECD, IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board
2005
This report by the IEA's Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) explores the potential for technology to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions from burning coal. It finds that coal-based technologies have the potential to make significant CO2 emissions reductions and urges governments to assist by establishing regulatory frameworks that encourage the development and deployment of the latest technologies. It presents collaborative action by governments and industry to encourage co-ordinated research and action to develop and demonstrate clean coal technologies.
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The Dirty Truth About Coal: Why Yesterday's Technology Should Not Be Part of Tomorrow's Energy Future

By: Alice McKeown (Sierra Club)
Jun 2007
The author states that coal-fired power plants are major contributors to global warming. She further asserts that "mining and burning coal scars lungs, tears up the land, pollutes water, devastates communities, and makes global warming worse." The coal industry, however, is pushing "clean" coal alternatives such as Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) that captures coal-fired exhaust and stores it underground and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) that converts coal to a gas then burned to produce electricity. The study urges that coal be mined responsibly and burned cleanly without exacerbating global warming.
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Focus on Clean Coal

By: International Energy Agency
2006
This note provides an update on growth in global coal demand, the potential for efficiency improvements through the application of best practices at coal-fired power stations, and recent developments in the field of clean coal technologies incorporating carbon dioxide capture and storage.
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CO2 Capture Ready Plants

By: International Energy Agency
2007
The study explores necessary measures to make the power plant CO2 capture and storage ready.
http://www.iea.org/Textbase/Papers/2007/CO2_Capture_Ready_Plants.pdf
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IEA Energy Technology Essentials: CO2 Capture and Storage

By: International Energy Agency
2006
The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy.
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How Close is Carbon Capture and Sequestration to Being Ready for Prime Time?

Standard and Poor's‘ Special Report: The Credit Impact of Climate Change
By: Swami Venkataraman
May 2007
Carbon capture and sequestration technology has been around since the 1970s, but it is now attracting increasing interest. This is because continued use of coal—though necessary to meet energy demand over the next several decades—will generate significant CO2 emissions. The paper gives an overview of the technological status quo and current possibilities of carbon sequestration and points out that on the long run, the establishment of these technologies is more dependent on the legal and regulatory framework than on construction and maintenance costs.
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Recent Advances in Clean Coal Technology

By: Senate -Energy and Natural Resources Committee - Oversight Hearing Aug 2007
The purpose of this hearing was to receive testimony on recent advances in clean coal technology, including the prospects for deploying these technologies at a commercial scale in the near future.
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PFC Energy 50

By: PFC Energy
Jan 2007
The PFC Energy 50 ranks the top 50 publicly traded companies in the oil and gas industry based on year-end market capitalization. The PFC Energy 50 includes companies from 18 countries, led by the US (14), EU (13), Canada (7) and Russia (5). Integrated (25) and E&P (12) companies account for 37 of the top 50. Joining the PFC 50 in 2006: Rosneft, Reliance, Cepsa, Novatek and Gas Natural. Departing this year's list (rank in 2005): Burlington (#21- acquired by ConocoPhillips), EOG Resources (#41), Formosa (#45), Transneft (#49) and Indian Oil (#50).
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Fossil Fuels, the Hydrogen Economy, and Energy Policy

By: Aspen Institute
2004
Each of the major fossil fuels - oil,natural gas,and coal - faces significant challenges and presents interesting opportunities. The 28th annual Energy Policy Forum considered key variables affecting supply and demand for each of the fossil fuels,domestically and globally,including new technologies and the competition offered by alternatives such as renewables and nuclear.It then examined the problems and potential of hydrogen,including its primary fuel source. Finally,based on these discussions,it suggested guidance for the development of near-term government energy policy.
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The New Energy Security - 2005 Global Oil and Gas Forum

By: Aspen Institute
2005
The Program on Energy, the Environment, and the Economy has released “The New Energy Security”, the report of its first annual Global Oil and Gas Forum. Experts discussed recent increases in oil and gas prices, global competition for reserves, debates about whether oil production will peak soon, growth in demand in China and India, prospects for increased production in Saudi Arabia and Russia, US reliance on LNG imports to meet gas demand growth, and the links between globalized energy markets and perceptions of national security.
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Climate Change and Energy Security Impacts and Tradeoffs in 2025

World Resources Institute (WRI)
2007
U.S. policymakers are now considering a range of options to address the issues of future U.S. energy security and climate change. Energy policies are often proposed to address some combination of these. Yet not all policy options have equal impacts across both, and many options have negative impacts with respect to one or the other.
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Nuclear Power – Myth and Reality

By: Heinrich Böll Foundation
2005
"Nuclear Power – Myth and Reality" is a compilation of scientific papers covering the most important issues to do with the production of nuclear power. The compilation aims to cover all the key aspects of the topic, including uranium resources, nuclear energy, proliferation, the economics of nuclear power, security risks, climate change.
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IEA Energy Technology Essentials: Nuclear Power

By: International Energy Agency
2007
The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy.
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Global Uranium Supply and Demand

By: Toni Johnson (Council on Foreign Relations)
Nov 2007
Interest in the use of nuclear power is on the rise, as the world’s growing demand for cheap, reliable electricity vies with the need to reduce air pollution.
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Nuclear Externalities

This spreadsheet contains summaries of various studies on the external costs of nuclear generation.
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Renewables Global Status Report 2006

By: BMU (Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservancy and Nuclear Safety)
Aug 2006
Investments in renewable energy sources have gone up by one third within one year from 30 billion US dollars in 2004 to 38 billion US dollars in 2005. The purpose of the report is to advance a rapid and more wide-spread use of renewable energy sources in developing and industrialised countries by lending support to political developments and decision making processes at regional, national and international level.
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Renewables in Global Energy Supply – An IEA Fact Sheet

By: International Energy Agency
Jan 2007
The purpose of the Renewable Energy Fact Sheet is to present the current status of renewable energy markets as well as the IEA scenarios for future development of these technologies.
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Wind Force 12 (2005) - A Blueprint to Achieve 12% of the World’s Electricity from Wind Power by 2020

By: European Wind Energy Association
Jun 2005
This EWEA (European Wind Energy Association) report demonstrates that there are no technical, economic or resource barriers to supplying 12% of the world's electricity needs with wind power alone by 2020; and this against the challenging backdrop of a projected two thirds increase of electricity demand by that date.
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External Costs of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energies Compared to Electricity Generation from Fossil Energy Sources

By: BMU (Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservancy and Nuclear Safety)
Mar 2006
Various energy and environmental policy instruments are geared towards an internalisation of external effects in the energy sector. Despite considerable research work over the past 15 years there are still uncertainties with regard to quantifying external costs. Moreover, new findings in recent years have in some cases led to a re-assessment of the external costs of electricity generation. The study summarises the latest current status of knowledge on the external costs of electricity generation and elaborating recommendations for using the available data in the context of energy policy.
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IEA Energy Technology Essentials: Hydrogen Production & Distribution

By: International Energy Agency
Apr 2007
The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy.
pdf Download Paper [pdf, 161 KB]

 

IEA Energy Technology Essentials: Biomass for Power Generation and CHP

By: International Energy Agency
2007
The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy.
pdf Download Paper [pdf, 76 KB]

 

IEA Energy Technology Essentials: Biofuel Production

By: International Energy Agency
2007
The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy.
pdf Download Paper [pdf, 232 KB]

 

IEA Energy Technology Essentials: Fuel Cells

By: International Energy Agency
2007
The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy.
pdf Download Paper [pdf, 93 KB]

 

Contribution of Renewables to Energy Security

By: International Energy Agency
Apr 2007
The environmental benefits of renewable energy are well known. But the contribution that they can make to energy security is less widely recognised. This report aims to redress the balance, showing how in electricity generation, heat supply, and transport, renewables can enhance energy security and suggesting policies that can optimise this contribution.
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Energy: The Long View

By: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies
Oct 2007
As we become increasingly concerned about the sustainability of our energy systems, we need to develop ways of thinking about energy from a long term perspective - for instance, climate change studies often involve forecasts hundreds of years into the future. A new study, by Malcolm Keay, draws inspiration from Churchill's dictum "The further backward you look, the further forward you can see". It traces past energy developments and trends, since before the industrial revolution, to see what lessons history may hold about possible long term energy futures.
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